Insomnia is a common sleep disorder. If you have, you may have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or both. As a result, you can get too little sleep or have a poor-quality sleep. You may not feel refreshed when you wake up

Symptoms of insomnia include:

  • Lying awake for a long time before sleep
  • Sleep only for short periods of time
  • Awake for most of the night
  • Feeling like you have not slept at all
  • Waking up too early

Your doctor will diagnose insomnia based on your medical and sleep history and physical exam. They may also recommend a sleep study. The sleep study measures how well you sleep and how your body responds to sleep problems. Treatments include lifestyle changes, counseling, and medication.


Insomnia Symptoms

Symptoms of insomnia can include:

  • Difficulty falling asleep at night
  • Waking up during the night
  • Waking up too early
  • Not feeling well-rested after a night’s sleep
  • Daytime fatigue or sleepiness
  • Irritability, depression, or anxiety
  • The complexity of the note focused on tasks or remembering
  • Increase in the number of errors or accidents
  • Tension headaches
  • Distress in the stomach and intestines
  • Current concerns about sleep

Someone with insomnia often takes 30 minutes or more in order to sleep and can receive only six or fewer hours of sleep for three or more nights a week for a month or more.


When to see a doctor

If insomnia makes it hard for you to function during the day, ask your doctor to determine what might be causing your sleep problem and how it can be treated. If your doctor thinks you might have a sleep disorder, you would be transferred to a sleep center for special tests.


Causes of Insomnia

Common causes of insomnia include:


  • Stress

Concerns about work, school, health, or family can keep your mind active at night, making it difficult to sleep. , Stressful life events – such as the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or job loss – .. May lead to insomnia

  • Anxiety

Everyday anxieties and more or severe anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder can disrupt your sleep. In addition, worry about being able to sleep can make it harder to fall asleep.

  • Depression

You can either sleep too much or have trouble sleeping if you’re depressed. Insomnia often occurs with other mental disorders, as well.

  • Medical conditions

If you have chronic pain, difficulty breathing, or the need to urinate frequently, you might develop insomnia. Examples of conditions associated with insomnia include arthritis, cancer, heart disease, lung disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, overactive thyroid, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Change in your environment or work schedule

Traveling or working late or early shifts can disrupt your body’s circadian rhythms, making it difficult to sleep. Your circadian rhythms act as internal clocks, guiding such things as your sleep-wake cycle, metabolism, and body temperature.

  • Poor sleep habits

Poor sleep habits include an irregular sleep schedule, stimulating activities before bed, an uncomfortable sleep environment, and use your bed for activities other than sleep or sex.

  • Medication

Many prescription drugs may interfere with sleep, including antidepressants, cardiac and blood pressure medication, allergy medication, stimulants, and corticosteroids. Many over-the-counter drugs – including some combination of painkillers, decongestants, and weight-loss products – contain caffeine and other stimulants

  • Caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol

.. Coffee, tea, cola, and other caffeinated beverages are well-known stimulants. Drinking coffee in the afternoon, and then can keep you from falling asleep at night. The nicotine in tobacco is another stimulant that can cause insomnia. Alcohol is a sedative that can help you fall asleep, but it prevents deeper stages of sleep and often causes you to awaken in the middle of the night.

  • Eating too much late in the evening.

Having a light snack before bedtime is OK, but eating too much can make you feel physically uncomfortable lying down, making it difficult to sleep. Many people also experience heartburn, acid, and backflow of food from the stomach into the esophagus after meals, which can keep you awake up.


Insomnia and aging

Insomnia becomes more prevalent with age. As you get older, you may encounter:


  • Change sleep

Sleep often becomes less relaxed as you age, and you may find that noise or other changes in your environment are more likely to wake you up. This is because, with age, your internal clock often advances, which means you get tired earlier in the evening and wake up early in the morning. But older people tend to need the same amount of sleep still as younger people do.

  • Changes in the activity

You may be less physically or socially active. The lack of activity can interfere with a good night’s sleep. In addition, the less active you are, the more likely you can take a daily nap, which can interfere with sleep at night.

  • Change in health

chronic pain conditions, such as arthritis or back problems, and depression, anxiety, and stress, can interfere with sleep. Older people often develop noncancerous enlargement of the prostate that can cause the need to urinate frequently, interrupting sleep. Women in menopause hot flashes can be equally devastating. Other sleep-related disorders, such as sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome, also become more common with age. Sleep apnea causes you to stop breathing periodically throughout the night. Restless legs syndrome causes unpleasant sensations in the legs and an almost irresistible desire to move them, which may prevent you from falling asleep.

  • Other medications

Older people tend to use more prescription drugs than younger people, which increases the chance of insomnia caused by the treatment.

Sleep problems can be a problem for children and teenagers as well. However, some children and teenagers have trouble sleeping or resisting regular bedtime because their internal clocks are more delayed. As a result, they want to go to bed later and sleep later in the morning.


Risk factors for Insomnia

Almost everyone has an occasional sleepless nights. But your risk of insomnia is greater if:


  • You are a woman – Women are much more likely to experience insomnia .. Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, and menopause may play a role. During menopause, night sweats and hot flashes often disturb sleep. Insomnia is also common in pregnancy.
  • You are older than 60 years – Due to changes in the structure of sleep and health, insomnia increases with age.
  • You have a mental health disorder – Many disorders -. including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress – disrupt sleep. Early morning awakening is a classic symptom of depression.
  • You’re under a lot of stress – Stressful events can cause temporary insomnia. And large or prolonged stress, such as the death of a loved one or a divorce, can lead to chronic insomnia. Being poor or unemployed also increases the risk.
  • Do you work at night or changing shifts – Working at night or frequently changing shifts increases the risk of insomnia.
  • You travel long distances – Jet lag from traveling several time zones can cause insomnia.


Insomnia Preparing for your appointment

If you are having trouble sleeping, you’ll probably start talking to your family doctor.


What can you do

To prepare for the appointment:

  • Anything Ask if you need to do in advance – Such as keeping a sleep diary. In the sleep diary, you record your sleep patterns – bedtime hours, sleep, nighttime awakenings, and awake time – as well as your daily routine, naps, and how you feel during the day.
  • Make a list of any symptoms you are having, including any that may seem unrelated to the cause of the destination.
  • Take the key personal information – including new or ongoing health problems, major stresses, or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all the medicines, vitamins, herbal or other supplements you are taking, including the dosage. Then, let your doctor know what you have done to help you sleep.
  • Take along a bed partner, if possible. Your doctor may want to talk with your partner to find out more about how much and how well you sleep.
  • Make a list of questions to ask your doctor to make the most of your appointment time.


For insomnia, some of the key questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is most likely the cause of my insomnia
  • What’s the best treatment
  • I have these other health conditions ?. How can I best manage them together?
  • Should I go to the sleep clinic? Will my insurance cover it?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can have? What sites do you recommend?

Do not hesitate to ask questions at any time during your appointment.


What can we expect from your doctor

a key part of the evaluation is a detailed history of insomnia, so your doctor will ask you many questions,

About insomnia:

  • How often do you have trouble sleeping, insomnia, and when to start?
  • How long did it take you long to get to sleep?
  • Do you snore or wake up choking for breath?
  • How often do you wake up at night, and how long did it take you to fall back to sleep on your day?
  • Do you feel refreshed when you wake up, or are you tired during the day?
  • Is there a doze off or have trouble staying awake while sitting quietly or driving?
  • If you have to take a nap during the day?
  • What type of work do you do?
  • What is your training?
  • You are worried about falling asleep or staying asleep?


About your bedtime routine:
  • What procedure before going to bed
  • What do you usually eat and drink in the evening?
  • Do you currently take any medications or sleeping pills before going to bed?
  • Have you ever used sleeping pills in the past?
  • At what time do you go to bed at night and wake up in the morning?
  • It’s different on the weekends?
  • Where do you sleep?
  • That the noise level, temperature, and lighting in the room
  • How many hours a day do you sleep


On the other issues that may affect your sleep:?

  • Have you experienced stressful events recently, such as divorce, loss of a job, or increased demands at work?
  • Do you use tobacco or drink alcohol?
  • Do you have any family members with sleep problems?
  • Did you travel recently?
  • What medications do you take regularly?


Insomnia Test and Diagnosis

In addition to asking you a series of questions, your doctor may have you fill out a questionnaire to determine your sleep-wake pattern and your level of daytime sleepiness. You may also be asked to keep a sleep diary for a few weeks if you have not already done so.

Your doctor will likely do a physical exam to look for signs of other problems that can cause insomnia. Sometimes a blood test can check for thyroid problems or other conditions that can cause insomnia.

If the cause of your insomnia is not clear, or if you have other symptoms of sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome, you may have to spend the night in a sleep center. Tests are carried out to monitor and record the various activities of the body during sleep, including brain waves, breathing, heart rate, eye movements, and body movements.


Insomnia Treatments and drugs

Changing your sleep habits and addressing any underlying causes of insomnia, such as medical conditions or medications, can restore restful sleep for many people. However, if these measures do not work, your doctor may recommend medications to help with relaxation and sleep.

  • Behavioral therapy

Behavioral therapy teaches you new sleep behaviors and ways to improve your sleeping environment; good sleep habits promote sound sleep and daytime alertness. Behavioral therapy is usually recommended as a first-line treatment for people with insomnia. As a rule, they are equally or more effective than sleep medications.

behavioral therapy include:
  • Education about good sleeping habits — Good sleep habits include having a regular sleep schedule, avoiding stimulating activities before bed, and having comfortable sleeping conditions.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy — This type of therapy helps to control or eliminate negative thoughts and worries that keep you awake. It can also include eliminating the false or alarming ideas of ​​a dream, for example, the idea that a sleepless night will make you sick.
  • Relaxation techniques — Progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback and breathing exercises are ways to reduce anxiety before bedtime. These strategies will help you control your breathing, heart rate, muscle tension, and mood.
  • Stimulus control means limiting the time you spend awake in bed and associating the bed and bedroom only sleep and sex.
  • Sleep restriction — This treatment reduces the time you spend in bed, causing a partial deprivation of sleep, making you more tired the next night. After your sleep has improved, your time in bed is gradually increased.
  • Remaining passive wake — Also called paradoxical intention, is taught by the treatment of insomnia aims to decrease anxiety and anxiety about being able to sleep, getting in bed, and trying to sleep, rather than waiting to fall asleep.
  • Light therapy — If you fall asleep too early and then awaken too early, you can use light to push back your internal clock. For example, you can go out during the year when the light from the outside is in the evening, or you can get light using a lightbox medical grade.



Taking prescription sleeping pills – such as Zolpidem, Eszopiclone, Zaleplon, or Ramelteon – may help you fall asleep. Doctors generally do not recommend relying on prescription sleeping pills for more than a few weeks, but several drugs are approved for long-term use.

Over-counter sleep aids

Nonprescription sleep medications contain antihistamines that can make you drowsy. Antihistamines may initially make you groggy, but they can also reduce the quality of your sleep, and they can cause side effects such as daytime sleepiness, dizziness, urinary retention, dry mouth, and confusion. These effects may be worse in the elderly. In addition, antihistamines may worsen urinary problems, causing you to get up to urinate more during the night.


Insomnia Lifestyle and home remedies

No matter what your age, insomnia usually is treatable. The key often lies in changes in your routine for the day and when you go to bed. Good sleep habits promote sound sleep and daytime alertness. These tips can help.

Top tips:


  • Exercise and leisure – Activity helps promote a good night’s sleep. Get at least 20 to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise daily for five to six hours before bedtime.
  • Check your medications – If you are taking the medication regularly, consult your physician to see if they can contribute to your insomnia. Also, check the labels of OTC products to see if they contain caffeine or other stimulants, such as pseudoephedrine.
  • Avoid or limit naps – Naps can make it harder to fall asleep at night; if you can not do without them, try to limit a nap to no more than 30 minutes and do not nap after 3 hours.
  • Avoid or limit caffeine and alcohol and do not use nicotine – All of this can make it harder to fall asleep. Avoid caffeine after lunch. Avoiding alcohol can help prevent restless sleep and frequent awakenings.
  • Do not put up with the pain – If a painful condition bothers you, make sure that you take a pain reliever to control pain when you sleep effectively.
  • Stick sleep schedule – Keep your bedtime and wake time corresponding to every day, including weekends.


During sleep:


  • Avoid large meals and beverages before bedtime –  Light snacks are great .. but avoid eating too late at night to reduce the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease and improve sleep. Also, drink less before bedtime, so you do not have to urinate frequently.
  • Use the bed and bedroom only for sleeping or sex – Do not read, work, or eat in bed. Also, avoid television, computers, video games, smartphones, or other screens before bedtime, as the light can interfere with your sleep cycle.
  • Make your bedroom comfortable for sleeping – Close your bedroom door or create subtle background noise, such as the fan runs to help drown out other noises. Keep comfortable bedroom temperature is usually cooler than during the day and dark. Do not keep a TV or computer in the bedroom.
  • Hide the bedroom clocks – Set the alarm so that you know when to get up, but then hide all the clocks in your bedroom, including your wristwatch and mobile phone, so you do not have to worry about how much time.
  • Find ways to relax – Try to put your worries and plan aside when you get into bed. A warm bath or massage before bedtime can help you get ready for bed. Create a relaxing bedtime ritual, such as reading, soft music, breathing exercises, yoga, or prayer.
  • Avoid trying too hard to sleep – The more you try, the more awake you become. Read in another room until you become very sleepy and then go to bed to sleep.
  • Get out of bed when you do not sleep – Sleep as much as you need to feel rested and then get out of bed. If you can not sleep, get out of bed within 20 minutes and do something relaxing, such as reading. Then try to go to sleep again.


Insomnia Complications

Sleep is as important to your health as a healthy diet and regular exercise. Whatever your reason for sleep loss, insomnia can affect you mentally and physically. . People with insomnia report decreased quality of life compared to people who sleep well.

Insomnia Complications may include:

  • Lower productivity at work or school
  • Slowed reaction time while driving and a higher risk of accidents
  • Psychiatric problems such as depression or anxiety disorder
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Irritability
  • Increased risk and severity of long-term diseases or conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes
  • Addiction