Subatrophic gastritis is one of the common forms of the disease, in which atrophied areas form on the gastric mucosa. Dead cells are replaced by epithelial and connective tissues.
All this leads to the fact that the stomach can not fully perform its functions. The body is not able to synthesize hydrochloric acid, and the degree of acidity of gastric juice decreases.
Subatrophic gastritis is the first stage of a more dangerous disease – gastric atrophy. To avoid negative consequences, when a disease is detected, a doctor should be consulted immediately. Otherwise, the disease can lead to damage to the stomach.
Unlike men, women are less likely to develop inflammatory processes. In general, gastrointestinal disease declines in both sexes as they age.
Types of subatrophic gastritis
Depending on the degree of inflammation, subatrophic gastritis can be divided into three types:
1. Superficial subatrophic gastritis
This type of subatrophic gastritis belongs to the initial stage of the disease. With it, lesions are noted only on the upper layer of the gastric mucosa. Proper and timely treatment will lead the patient to positive results. It is noted that this form is best treated.
2. Antral subatrophic gastritis
This type of subatrophic gastritis leads to increased secretion in the stomach. The patient’s juice acidity jumps. There is a lesion of the antral calving of the stomach since there is a focus of inflammation.
If you do not see a doctor in time, not only the antrum of the stomach, but the duodenum may suffer. This can lead to duodenitis.
Duodenitis is an inflammatory disease of the duodenum, in which its mucous membrane is most severely affected. With it, a person feels weakness, pain in the stomach, heartburn, belching, nausea, and vomiting. If you follow a diet, acute duodenitis will pass in a few days. Recurrent disease can become chronic. Then there will be complications of intestinal bleeding and the development of acute pancreatitis.
3. Chronic subatrophic gastritis
Of the above species, this is the most dangerous. With it, antibodies are formed, due to which gland cells disappear. There is a lesion of the upper layer of the mucosa and tissues in the deeper layers. Due to intoxication, the nervous and circulatory systems can be affected.
Chronic subatrophic gastritis is considered a precancerous condition and contributes to the appearance of tumors in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. It requires immediate medical attention.
Antral and chronic gastritis is considered the most dangerous. With them, you must immediately consult a doctor and begin to take measures to eliminate the disease. Correctly and timely actions performed will help not only prevent the development of gastritis but also defeat it.
Causes of subatrophic gastritis
The most common cause of subatrophic gastritis is the bacterium Helicobacter. It occurs on the epithelium of the gastric mucosa and leads to the inflammatory process of atrophied areas. The disease can develop superficial gastritis. To prevent this, it is necessary to establish a diagnosis in time.
Also, the occurrence of subatrophic gastritis is affected by:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Violation of the diet. Frequent consumption of fried, salty, and fatty foods;
- The use of a large number of antibiotics;
- Autoimmune processes in the stomach;
- Alcohol abuse and smoking;
- Frequent psycho-emotional stress, stress.
With a combination of many causes, the risk of developing subatrophic gastritis increases. Therefore, people with these risk factors should be periodically observed by a doctor, as well as monitored their health.
Symptoms of subatrophic gastritis
Subatrophic gastritis can be identified by daily deteriorating health.
If the mucosal lesion is insignificant, then symptoms may not be observed. The only thing may be heaviness after eating or belching. The number of symptoms increases when multiple mucosal sites are affected.
The intensity of the disease is pronounced or moderately pronounced, atrophic-hyperplastic. Cells die at the bottom and throughout the cavity of the stomach. With rapid destruction, the enzymes that are necessary for the digestive process are produced more slowly. All this leads to the fact that in the human body there is an insufficient amount of vitamins.
The following symptoms may indicate the development of subatrophic gastritis:
- Aching pain in the stomach after eating;
- Unstable stools and diarrhea that alternates with constipation;
- Bad taste and odor from the mouth;
- Nausea, vomiting, belching;
- Lethargy and fatigue at low loads;
- Aversion to milk and dairy products;
- The white or gray coating on the tongue;
- Severe sweating;
- Weight loss.
Sometimes patients ‘ vision deteriorates, hair falls out, and nails exfoliate. A decrease in the number of vitamins and vital substances weakens the immune system, and the work of internal organs is disrupted.
It is important to remember that the signs of subatrophic gastritis do not differ from the symptoms of other inflammations of the gastric mucosa. It is possible to determine the type of disease only at an appointment with a specialist.
Diagnosis of the disease
If symptoms of subatrophic gastritis appear, it is recommended to immediately contact the clinic. It is impossible to determine the disease on your own.
Diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract is carried out by a gastroenterologist. He makes several specific examinations to accurately establish the disease.
A study of the gastrointestinal tract and a pathomorphological study of a tissue sample of the stomach are carried out, the level of acidity is measured, the presence of Helicobacter bacteria in the stomach is determined, and an x-ray of the digestive organ is taken.
Inspection, palpation, and percussion are mandatory. In addition, the doctor conducts other diagnostic methods. Among them:
- Taking blood and urine tests;
- Performing pH-meter (measurement of acidity directly in the gastrointestinal tract);
- Carrying out enzyme immunoassay and urease test to determine the pathogen Helicobacter;
- Conducting ultrasound for diagnosis to identify the presence of concomitant diseases;
- Analysis of biomaterial at the tissue level of atrophied areas.
If not diagnosed, the body will receive insufficient amounts of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. All this will lead to pathology from the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and other systems.
If comorbidities are identified, the doctor may recommend contacting other specialists. In this regard, the patient may need additional examination and treatment.
Complications of subatrophic gastritis
Subatrophic gastritis is more dangerous than simple gastritis. Inflammation is located between the stomach and intestines. Ignoring the treatment of the disease can lead to the fact that food will not enter the intestines.
Also, an untimely trip to the doctor can result in damage to the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
If subatrophic gastritis is not detected in time, it will quickly begin to develop and become chronic. Because of this, the affected cells can turn into cancer cells, which can lead to a tumor.
Also, the development of the disease leads to a more severe condition – chronic antral subatrophic gastritis. Then the digestive functions will be disturbed and lifelong therapy will be required.
Treatment of subatrophic gastritis of the stomach
The course of treatment depends on the result of research by an endocrinologist.
If Helicobacter bacteria are found, antibiotics and medications are prescribed. They will block the production of stomach acid.
In the case when Holibaters are not detected, the doctor finds out another reason for the appearance of subatrophic gastritis. On average, the diagnosis and treatment take 2-3 months.
The disease can be treated both on an outpatient basis and in hospitals. The main thing is not to interrupt it – you need to take the drugs prescribed by the doctor and follow the prescribed diet.
Treatment of subatrophic gastritis can be carried out in several stages. In the first of them, the doctor prescribes antibiotics to eliminate the causes of the disease. The patient will be prescribed drugs that help to remove bacteria, inhibitors, wound healing agents, and glucocorticoids.
At another stage of treatment, drugs are prescribed that inhibit the development of the disease. These are usually drugs that can remove the deficiency of trace elements necessary for the body. They also prescribe gastroprotectants (restore the gastric mucosa), astringents and enveloping drugs, painkillers, and prokinetics (improve the functioning of the stomach).
With Helicobacter pylori infection, antibiotics are prescribed, which will “kill” the bacteria. They will prevent the development of an infectious-inflammatory process. These drugs are made based on Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin.
To increase the level of acidity in gastric juice, drugs are prescribed that stimulate the secretion of glands. If the acidity is increased, antacids are prescribed.
To heal damaged areas, antacid drugs are prescribed. They envelop the walls of the stomach and accelerate the regeneration of damaged tissues.
Natural substances are effective because they are safe and available. With their use, the likelihood of developing adverse reactions is low. Also, a person of any age can resort to folk remedies.
However, before using folk remedies, you should consult a doctor.
In folk medicine, a number of the most effective folk remedies for the treatment of subatrophic gastritis are noted. Among them:
- Infusions and decoctions of herbs: mint, St. John’s wort, wormwood. All these herbs can accelerate the restoration of the integrity of the gastric mucosa and its functionality.
- Propolis tincture. It heals atrophic areas on the gastric mucosa and reduces the acidity of gastric juice.
- Rosehip decoction cleanses the walls of the stomach and removes toxins.
- Pharmacy chamomile gives a calming effect and has anti-inflammatory properties. The person’s well-being improves.
- Potato juice. Reduces the acidity level of gastric juice. It must be taken on an empty stomach.
- Cabbage juice. Activates the release of hydrochloric acid.
- To reduce acidity, you can use aloe juice.
- For breakfast, you can eat grated sour apples with honey.
- Sea buckthorn oil also reduces the level of acidity. It can heal atrophied areas of the mucosa.
With all the effectiveness of alternative methods of treating subatrophic gastritis, before using them, you should go to an appointment with a gastroenterologist and be pre-examined. First of all, it is necessary to determine the stage of development of subatrophic gastritis and its features.
Diet for subatrophic gastritis
Meals should be carried out up to 5-6 times a day, while the daily diet is recommended to be divided into small portions. It is important that the menu is varied, but does not include prohibited foods. Nutrition should fully meet the needs of the body.
To bring the stomach back to normal, you must follow a diet prescribed by a doctor or nutritionist.
First of all, in the diet, there should be no products that do not injure the mucous membrane.
It is not recommended to use:
- Fried, spicy, salty, fatty foods;
- Canned food;
- Products containing caffeine;
- Beans, cabbage, and other foods that cause bloating;
- Pastries and chocolate.
Useful for subatrophic gastritis:
- Vegetable soups;
- Mashed potatoes;
- Boiled fish;
- Lean meat;
- Soft food.
To prevent the formation of subatrophic gastritis, several precautions must be observed. First of all, you should be attentive to your health and periodically examined by an endocrinologist.
To avoid illness, you must adhere to the following rules :
- Limit the use of liquids that contain dyes and food acids;
- Do not abuse alcohol, smoking, and energy drinks;
- Refuse foods that irritate the gastric mucosa (fried, salty);
- Do not eat too hot and cold food, cool hot teas;
- Do not take strong medications;
- Avoid stress and nervous situations;
- Do not disturb sleep (at least 8 hours a day);
- Observe the rules of personal hygiene;
- Try to do physical activity every day to improve vitality;
- Visit a doctor regularly and undergo examinations.
- If infections are detected, treat them immediately.
- Use drugs strictly according to the doctor’s prescription (in the indicated dosage).
If you follow these rules, you can avoid subatrophic gastritis. If, nevertheless, the disease overtook you, try to stick to the diet prescribed by the doctor and do not postpone treatment.
Thus, subatrophic gastritis can be cured using both folk methods and modern medicine. If the disease is not detected in time and started, the medicines will have to be taken throughout life. Subatrophic gastritis can lead to atrophy of the stomach. Then the digestion of the food bolus will slow down and its evacuation into the small intestine will slow down.
To prevent complications, you need to contact an endocrinologist as soon as possible. If you start treatment at the initial stage, then the chance of a complete recovery is high.
It is necessary to follow all the doctor’s prescriptions: take medicines, follow a diet, lead a healthy lifestyle, avoid stressful situations and visit a doctor regularly. It is important to detect the disease in time and prevent its development.