Gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa, which can occur with different manifestations, symptoms, and stages. Its cause can be both increased acidity of the stomach, and the insidious bacterium Helicobacter Pylori. studies also show that the disease affects more and more people every year. This is due to constant stress, sleep disturbance, and nutrition.
As they say, keep a friend close, and an enemy even closer, so we will try to get to know gastritis more closely, and find out the causes, symptoms, and ways of recovery.
Types of gastritis
Erosive gastritis is an inflammatory disease in which the gastric mucosa is affected and erosions form. With timely treatment and treatment, they do not penetrate too deeply, and after healing they do not leave marks. This distinguishes erosive gastritis from an ulcer, which damages not only the inner surface but also deep tissues, up to the muscle layer.
Do not think that erosive gastritis is harmless. It can also incur dangerous consequences, including bleeding.
Of the gastric diseases, erosive gastritis is one of the most common types. Complaints of heartburn, stomach pain, and nausea often turn into a diagnosis. The disease is observed in both men and women. It develops more often in adults of any age, much less often in children.
Atrophic gastritis is a type of gastritis that occurs in a chronic form. It provokes the disappearance of the parietal cells of the stomach. This means that the secretion of hydrochloric acid decreases, the body lacks vitamin B12 and megaloblastic anemia occurs. Simply put, this type of gastritis leads to a sharp thinning of the gastric mucosa and its glands atrophy. It turns out that even food can easily injure the stomach.
The exact causes of atrophic gastritis are not yet fully understood. Gastroenterologists cite causes such as malnutrition, exposure to chemicals, bad habits, medications, reflux, as well as bacteria, and infections.
Atrophic gastritis is dangerous because there are no guarantees for full recovery and recovery. Moreover, this type is equated with a precancerous condition. this disease gives a weakening of the entire immune system as a whole.
Superficial gastritis is less dangerous than other types. This is considered the first stage of inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Pathology is observed on small surfaces, without the formation of foci, in deep areas. That is, a timely appeal to a gastroenterologist will prevent complications of the disease. The reasons can be all of the previously listed stimuli.
This disease also does not have a specific gender and age. This means that everyone who deals with pathogens is at risk.
Chronic gastritis is a disease characterized by recurrent inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
One of the main causes is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The microbe is transmitted by tactile interaction. If a person has strong immunity, then he can restrain the rapid growth of bacteria in the body. When certain conditions occur, the human immune system becomes unable to fully cope with its function, as a result of which various diseases arise, including chronic gastritis. Prevention of chronic gastritis is aimed at actively identifying risk factors in individuals predisposed to the occurrence of this disease, observing several organizational measures aimed at normalizing lifestyle, diet, and diet.
Acute gastritis is an inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa that occurs in the acute phase. Usually, with timely treatment and the absence of irritants, it is of short duration. Acute gastritis occurs abruptly and is severe, often erosions appear in the stomach, damage to the mucous membrane, and possibly bleeding. It should be noted that exacerbation of existing chronic gastritis (already existing) should be distinguished, and not identified with acute. Usually, at the first symptoms, patients begin to feel sharp pains in the stomach area, heaviness, nausea, belching, weakness, and dizziness appear.
Antral gastritis is localized in the lowest part of the stomach, which passes into the duodenum. In this department, the hormone “gastrin” is produced, which powerfully stimulates acids. It is referred to as hypersecretory gastritis, as there is an increase in acidity. Antral gastritis is a chronic superficial inflammation of the gastric mucosa. The main cause of its occurrence is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
Catarrhal gastritis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which occurs as a result of such negative factors: infections, injury from hot, cold, spicy food, non-compliance with diet, sleep, hygiene, etc.
Ignoring symptoms can lead to complications not only in the digestive tract but also in the rest of the body. What happens to the body during the period of the disease leads to a violation of the correct course of the digestive processes. Consequently, the stomach cannot properly absorb nutrients, which leads to a deterioration in the nutrition of tissues and organs. Therefore, treatment will help the whole body. A timely visit to the doctor will prevent the transition to the chronic phase.
Subatrophic gastritis is a pathology in which the mucous layer of the stomach ceases to perform its functions. Atrophied areas appear on the walls, the glands contract, and the production of gastric secretions decreases.
The symptoms are the same as in other species. The success of treatment also depends on how quickly the patient turned to a specialist. The disease progresses quite progressively into a chronic form, and the affected cells can turn into cancerous ones.
Hemorrhagic gastritis is a disease of the stomach in which bleeding occurs. Also, characteristic signs are erosion and damage to the mucous membrane. The disease can be acute and chronic. The first form occurs as a result of extensive damage. The second option manifests itself against the background of the constant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or the presence of persistent viral infections. Endoscopy may reveal mucosal edema. The sooner you start treatment, the easier it is to get rid of symptoms and complications.
Causes of gastritis
Gastritis is a rather capricious disease because the causes of occurrence can consist of various pathogens. Consider them:
- Severe stress, chronic mental stress. Do not be surprised that stress is listed as the first item. For the stomach, sometimes, “food garbage” is not as harmful as the emotional state.
- Helicobacter pylori. A bacterium that a weak immune system cannot cope with often turns out to be the cause of gastritis.
- Regular intake of alcohol, violation of the diet with long periods of fasting, intake of spicy and salty foods. And here is what many people know about, but very often neglected. Remember that we are what we eat.
- Smoking in the morning before breakfast. And in general, the process is not the safest for the health of the whole organism.
- Taking certain medications. It can also cause gastritis. Talk to your doctor, and in addition to these drugs, take protection for the stomach.
- Poor environment, harmful working conditions. Where many diseases of the 21st century come from, especially in metropolitan areas and industrial cities.
The first signs of gastritis of the stomach
Symptoms of any gastritis can be seen with the naked eye. The patient’s state of health deteriorates sharply, pain appears, and so on. Briefly about each symptom:
- Discomfort, tightness, cutting pains (especially after eating)
Maybe the first signal is that you should see a doctor. At the same time, inflammation can be felt on palpation.
- Heartburn, “sour” belching
If you think that this is a common thing, then you should not ignore such symptoms anyway.
- White coated tongue
Plaque also signals a disease of the gastrointestinal tract.
- The appearance of dispersion
Nausea, vomiting, and stool disorder, which become permanent, indicate obvious disorders of the stomach.
- Fever, weakness, dizziness
These general symptoms are also associated with gastritis.
Diagnosis of the disease
Gastritis should be treated by a gastroenterologist. First, the doctor collects an anamnesis, makes a preliminary diagnosis, and then conducts a complete examination to identify the nature of the disease, the degree, and the specific type.
It includes several stages:
- Gastroscopy (swallowing a light bulb) is performed using an endoscope
- Biopsy. During a gastroscopy, a tissue sample is taken for examination.
- Ultrasound of the digestive organs
- Helicobacteriosis test (respiratory)
- Analysis of blood, urine, feces
- Determination of pH balance
- Study of upper GI motility
It is important not to ignore and observe each of these points to make a correct diagnosis. After all, high-quality treatment of envy depends on the correct diagnosis.
Complications of gastritis
The very first complication that can be encountered is the transition from the acute stage to the chronic one. Chronic gastritis can lead to serious damage to the mucous walls of the stomach, therefore, it will lead to serious diseases. Erosive lesions cause gastric ulcers and gastric bleeding. The chronic phase can lead to atrophy, death of healthy cells, and their replacement with cancerous ones.
Improving the condition can be achieved with treatment and compliance with the recommendations of the doctor.
Treatment of gastritis
Gastritis is most often treated conservatively, that is, without surgery. The basis of recovery is diet and adherence to medication. The most important step is to eliminate the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. it is also very important to relieve the symptoms (to get rid of pain and discomfort), after which it is necessary to stimulate the healing of the mucosa.
Helicobacter pylori is a fairly “tenacious” bacterium that is resistant to antibiotics, so a combination of three to four drugs is prescribed to destroy it.
When bleeding, physiotherapy and laser therapy are prescribed, which have a good effect on the mucous membrane.
The patient must adhere to fractional nutrition(5 meals in small portions) to reduce the load and the likelihood of mechanical damage to the stomach. You will have to exclude too hot and cold, and give up fried, fatty, salty, spicy, sour, alcohol, and other things. Your menu should be as simple as possible.
To achieve remission, patients are prescribed complex treatment, the dosage, and duration of which depends on the type of gastritis, its stage, and neglect.
Is it possible to use traditional medicine? Yes, but keep in mind that these are only auxiliary tools, not a complete treatment. The complex folk remedies should also be discussed with the attending physician, who will give approval, or explain that such methods will be useless.
Also, folk remedies will be good during remission to maintain health. Some help heals, and some act as antiseptics.
- Potato juice. Half an hour before meals, you can take a tablespoon of potato juice. Juice must be fresh, not harvested. Trace elements and amino acids stop inflammatory processes, neutralize heartburn, normalize acidity, and restore damaged areas of the mucosa.
- Honey. In a glass, you need to dissolve 1-1.5 tablespoons of honey and drink in small sips an hour before meals. It improves the active activity of the stomach, normalizes the production of gastric juice, improves the digestibility of food, and reduces the activity of Helicobacter.
- A decoction of chamomile, dill, yarrow, and plantain. Pour boiling water over 1 tablespoon of herbs, insist, and take 100 ml. every 3 hours. Plants relieve inflammation, and pain and envelop the gastric mucosa.
- Aloe. Drink 10 mg. juice 3-4 times a day before meals. Aloe improves the production of choleretic juice, improves digestion, and also has a laxative effect, preventing and treating constipation.
- Sea buckthorn oil. Drink on an empty stomach 1 tablespoon three times a day.
- Flax seeds. Flax grains are oily, so the decoction is viscous and thick, almost like jelly. It envelops the walls of the stomach, reduces inflammation, and relieves spasms and pain. Raw grains cannot be eaten, they are coarse and, on the contrary, can irritate the stomach.
Lifestyle with gastritis
To forget about the existence of gastritis forever, it will be necessary to adhere to a fairly rigid framework. But you need to understand why these frameworks are created. So, you will improve your quality of life and prolong your comfortable state of health for a long time.
- You will always need to control what goes into your body. Food should be healthy and not irritate the gastric mucosa. Don’t forget about your diet. Do not overeat or undereat.
- It will also be important what happens to you emotionally because stress takes one of the most important places in the development of gastric diseases. Try to get more positive emotions.
- Keep in mind that the mode of the day and sleep should be regulated. Normal sleep is at least 7 hours.
- Visit a gastroenterologist at least 2 times a year, even if nothing bothers you. Be sure to regularly check the condition of the stomach.
- Take preventive courses of drugs that the doctor will prescribe, while not changing the treatment regimen on your own. Even if you think that everything is fine, and the doctor insists on the course, you should not deny it.
Diet for gastritis
The key to recovery from gastritis is diet. Usually, in the acute phase of any gastritis, diet No. 1 is prescribed. This means that the food must be mechanically, thermally, and chemically gentle. The multiplicity will be fractional (5-6 times a day, in small portions). It is preferable to use soft, grated food, puree soups, cereals, broths, soufflés, kissels, etc.
When feeling better, it is allowed to switch to diet number 2, where there will be a little less restriction. According to it, they restore the violation of digestive functions, but at the same time reduce the load on the gastrointestinal tract.
In the acute stage, it is worth excluding fresh vegetables and fruits, and eating them boiled, stewed, and baked. Fresh bread must be excluded and dried bread should be added. Low-fat meats and poultry are allowed. Milk should not be consumed in its pure form, but it can be added to cereals or tea.
Gastritis is not a sentence if a person consults a doctor on time and conscientiously monitors his health. With the right approach to treatment, you can forget what gastritis is.
To achieve maximum recovery, you need to create ideal conditions. Eliminate the above alcohol, smoking, junk food, and stress. It is important in this process features of the body (immunity, age).
Avoid heavy meals, control what gets into your body, and remember to eat regularly, and you will never know what a gastritis relapse is.
If gastritis occurs in a chronic form, then you should follow regular prophylaxis and keep your life in a clear mode (this should ideally be in a healthy person, by the way).
It is worth recalling that any disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Therefore, try to take care of your body, so to speak, voluntarily. What does it mean? And the fact that it is necessary to observe preventive measures before it is too late.
- Eat fractionally. Portions are false to be moderately small, but not deficient in calories. Eat food without rushing.
- Food should be varied. Include fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet more often.
- Avoid eating fast food, this food is hard to digest.
- Make sure that the food contains enough vitamins, especially A, C, D, and group B.
- Try to control your salt intake.
- Avoid high-calorie and fatty foods. Too much sugar is also harmful.
- Limit spices, spicy seasonings, and sauces in your diet. Refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages.
- Food should not be excessively hot or cold. Warm food is good for the stomach, it is easier and better digested.
- Follow the rules of hygiene at the table. Always wash your hands before eating. Dishes must be clean.
In order not to be a regular visitor to the gastroenterologist’s office, try to be more careful about your health. Do not allow external factors to spoil you from the inside. Remember that health depends not only on the characteristics of the body but 90% of the attitude towards your body and spirit.